Monday, August 24, 2020

The Modernization Of China And Its Impact Environmental Sciences Essay

The Modernization Of China And Its Impact Environmental Sciences Essay The issue of an Earth-wide temperature boost began path back in the mid 1990s and from that point forward there has been developing worldwide worries on fighting a dangerous atmospheric devation. In a stage to welcome all countries ready, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) was set up in 1992, in Rio de Janeiro (Yu, 2008). The principle target of bargain was to ponder on diminishing green house gases outflows by singular nations worldwide and particularly those nations who are the primary producers of carbon. On account of the immediate connection of this bargain to the economy, numerous countries are wary on marking to the settlement. Yu (2008) declared that, moderation of environmental change will be accomplished by generous joint effort under the UNFCCC (P.1). A worldwide temperature alteration has had a potential negative effect on the chinas condition. It has been discovered that since 1990, china has encountered ecological corruption because of this a dangerous atmospheric devation. Actually Yu (2008) said that because of the antagonistic impact on the chinas condition, their pioneers have needed to reconsider increasingly about the issue. There are numerous impacts of a dangerous atmospheric devation, for example, natural corruption, ocean level ascent and serious climate designs that may prompt waterfront flooding. Today China is accepted to be one of the universes polluter of condition attributable to its development in economy helped by satisfactory gracefully coal and oil creation (Yu, 2008). Curiously, an Earth-wide temperature boost is brought about by human exercises, for example, utilization of oil, petroleum products, and consuming of coal which prompts arrival of carbon dioxide and green house gases into the air. The high extent of this carbon dioxide in the air creates extraordinary a worldwide temperature alteration (Maslin, 2004). Unfortunately, ascend in temperature in the planet-earth-represents a potential danger to the presence of people. Negal (1994) saw that the headway of innovation and monetary development and modernization has to an enormous stretch out added to the a dangerous atmospheric devation. He cautions that a dangerous atmospheric devation and abnormal climate designs compromise the very presence of the globe (p.98). Nagel (1994) when expounding on Asian turn of events and open arrangement, portrays china as being stood up to with two interconnected difficulties: keeping up mechanical headway while fighting natural fiasco created by this innovat ion. The expansion in Chinas populace throughout the years has prompted the increment in the ecological contamination. As indicated by Nagel (1994), around sixty urban communities in China have seriously been influenced by exhaust cloud and industrial facility outflows (p.199); and a few urban communities in the Northern part anticipated elevated levels of carbon dioxide and different poisons. Due to rising interest for utilization of coal and oil, China is positively anticipated to have a critical increment in emanation of Carbon dioxide. About 12.0 billion tons in 2030, which will be the most elevated at any point accomplished by any country have been anticipated (Lloyed, 2009, p.51). Lloyed cautions that, on the off chance that Chinas anticipated emanation is the thing that to pass by, at that point it will be difficult to control the impacts of a worldwide temperature alteration, anyway a lot, different nations attempt to limit their outflows. Despite the fact that china is one of the profoundly populated nations on the planet with over 1.2 billion individuals, it is likewise one of the least fortunate (Harris, 2003). To help this developing populace, China expanded its mechanical development which meant expanded gracefully of food and different necessities inside the nation. As per Harris (2003), issue of an unnatural weather change in China has stirred because of the modernization of economy and enhancement of vitality to take care of the developing modernization. In regard to this, China expanded its vitality use by 208 percent somewhere in the range of 1970 and 1990, while coal rose by 69.9 percent (Harris, 2003). In the long run, China recorded around 13.4 percent of the world carbon dioxide emanations which evaluated them as the second, after the United States, biggest maker on the planet. The Chinas arrangement on vitality is educated by the methodology of expanding creation and gracefully. In 1980s, China began confronting intense lack of vitality because of its developing businesses; different wellsprings of vitality that are conservative and feasible were required direly to help the vitality deficiency. In this manner they turned to oil which was effectively accessible and required little measure of capital. To be explicit, china utilizes a great deal of coal in their modern segment when contrasted with different countries on the planet where their elective wellsprings of vitality, for example, power are being utilized. Harris (2003) says that Chinas vitality has been abused by clients in view of its low value arrangement of coal, wastefulness of mechanical machines, for example, boilers which consume coal, and poor framework (p.47) The result of this abuse and abuse of vitality was a genuine natural disaster. Harris (2003)described that China experienced genuine water deficiencies, land corruption, water contamination; yet among the most genuine ecological issues is climatic contamination (p.47). Likewise, respiratory difficulties expanded because of contamination of air brought about by fragmented ignition of coal from businesses. There was additionally demolition of harvests, woods and fisheries quickened by extraordinary degrees of corrosive downpour (Harris, 2003). All in all, the Chinas modernization has had unfriendly effect on an Earth-wide temperature boost. To begin with, mechanical extension of China started popularity of fuel. Because of this interest, China expanded flexibly of coal and oil. The ascent sought after for the utilization of these carbon producers fuel has devastatingly affected China and even worldwide environmental change. Carbon dioxide and nurseries gases which roots from consuming of coal and oil, rises the earth temperature. The high outflow of carbon dioxide in China has been brought about by three key elements: low estimating strategy of coal in China which prompted the less preservation of vitality by enterprises; low productivity level of machines utilized by Chinese businesses to consume coal and poor foundation. It is anticipated that by 2030, China will be the main maker of carbon dioxide with inexact 12.0 billion tons. The consequences of this will be felt in such a large number of ages to come. This is an aggregate obligation regarding each country towards the security of things to come age. Subsequently all countries ought to submit themselves in decreasing the carbon dioxide discharge to the situations.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Writer's choice Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Essayist's decision - Assignment Example On the very beginning, soon after recording my qualities, I stayed resolved to living by them to the last mentioned. A large portion of my activity were constrained by them as I every now and again thought about them at whatever point I occupied with any action or collaborated with partners and additionally relatives. For example, I have been wary not to damage or cause any kind of inconvenience to others as I associated with them. I even let go a companion who purposely sprinkled earth on my simply cleaned shoes. This was not normal for the previous me who might have responded viciously. Likewise, I have been sharp in showing up for addresses in time and constantly play out all assignments that relates to my scholastics. I would even counsel partners and educators on issues that I believed I required further explanation. Basically, I have been playful to achieve the previously mentioned topics. My stretch experience associates fundamentally to acknowledgment, which is one of the other center standards of ACT beside esteems. Acknowledgment includes permitting or rather grasping the undesirable idea in one personalities until that second when they blur away with no endeavor to ward them off. Taking care of such idea thusly limits their negative effect on one’s life as they give an inclination that they are less undermining. It might likewise be appear that acknowledgment is simply yet a way to upgrade a worth based way of life (Bach and Daniel 43). Over the span of my stretch, this guideline has been basic in so far my communication with different partners is concerned. I have been such an individual who is saved that I despised others from intruding into my issues. Said at the end of the day, I detested those partners who jab their noses in what doesn't concern them. This conduct disappointed my relationship with colleagues as I regularly felt that none of them needs the best for me. Regardless, my second in stretch has serve to make me grasp the negative disposition towards my partners at whatever point it boggles my psyche and

Friday, July 17, 2020

Causes and Treatment for Low Libido in Men

Causes and Treatment for Low Libido in Men Relationships Spouses & Partners Marital Problems Print Causes and Treatment of Low Libido in Men By Sheri Stritof Sheri Stritof has written about marriage and relationships for 20 years. Shes the co-author of The Everything Great Marriage Book. Learn about our editorial policy Sheri Stritof Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on July 01, 2019 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW Updated on November 27, 2019 More in Relationships Spouses & Partners Marital Problems LGBTQ Violence and Abuse In This Article Table of Contents Expand Low Testosterone Medications Depression Chronic Illness Stress and Sleep Disorders Lifestyle View All Back To Top Low libido is a term used to describe a decrease in sex drive that can interfere with sexual activity. While low libido can cause tension in a relationship, fostering doubt and guilt in both partners, it can often be treated if the underlying cause is identified.   Low libido should not be confused with erectile dysfunction (ED), although the two conditions can co-exist. Communication and honesty are needed for a couple to cope while identifying the possible causes. Treatment can vary and may involve psychotherapy, hormone replacement, lifestyle changes, or the adjustment of drug therapies.?? Low libido can sometimes be caused by a single factor but is more often related to multiple factors that each contribute in their own way. Among some of the more common causes are low testosterone, medications, depression, chronic illness, and stress. Illustration by Brianna Gilmartin, Verywell   Low Testosterone Low testosterone (hypogonadism) commonly develops as a man ages, but can also affect younger men for any number of reasons. Testosterone is the male hormone essential to development, strength, and sex drive. If the total testosterone drops below 300 to 350 nanogram per deciliter (ng/dL), the male libido can plummet, sometimes dramatically. While testosterone replacement therapy  may be useful in restoring the male sexual drive, it may increase the risk of blood clots and strokes in men with an underlying cardiovascular disorder. Sleep apnea, acne, and breast enlargement (gynecomastia) are other common side effects.?? Medications Medication side effects are common causes of low libido in men. These may include entire classes of drugs that can affect a mans sex drive to varying degrees. Common culprits include statins, beta-blockers, antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and anticonvulsants.?? Even over-the-counter drugs like Tagamet (cimetidine) can cause problems if taken for long periods of time.?? Stopping or changing the suspected drug may reverse the condition, although this is not always possible with certain chronic medications. A dose adjustment may also help. As always, do not change medication or dosage without first talking to your physician. Depression Depression and low libido may go hand-in-hand. Depression is often the cause of a reduced sex drive but may also be the consequence, making a tough situation worse. While psychotherapy may be effective in treating the depression,  antidepressant medications  can often exacerbate rather than improve the loss of libido.?? Switching drugs or reducing the dosage can sometimes help, but the side effects arent immediate and skipping or delaying a dose wont help. If you are depressed, it is important to discuss your libido with your doctor and to talk about how medications may impact your sex drive. Chronic Illness Chronic illness can take a toll on your sex drive both physically and emotionally.?? This is especially true with conditions for which there is chronic pain or fatigue, including rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, cancer, and chronic fatigue syndrome. When it comes to chronic illness and the loss of sexual function, there is rarely a straight line between cause and treatment. On the one hand, chronic illness is associated with an increased risk of depression, while on the other, it can directly interfere with hormonal, neurological, or vascular functions central to the male sex drive. Moreover, the medications used to treat the chronic condition (such as chemotherapy or cardiovascular drugs) may directly impair the male libido.?? As such, your doctor may need to explore the cause both from the perspective of the chronic illness and irrespective of the chronic illness. In some cases, multiple doctors may be needed. Stress and Sleep Disorders While stress can impair sexual interest by literally driving you to distraction, its effect on the sex drive is more insidious. Stress triggers the production of cortisol, a hormone that functions rather like a bodys built-in alarm system. Cortisol not only causes the constriction of blood vessels, contributing to ED, it can also cause a precipitous drop in testosterone. Stress is also linked to insomnia and other sleep abnormalities, which can increase the risk of fatigue and leave you less interested in sex. There is evidence that elevated cortisol level may increase the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition associated with the reduction of daytime testosterone by anywhere from 10 to 15 percent. Treatment may involve stress management techniques and the use of positive airway pressure and improved sleep hygiene to treat conditions like OSA and insomnia.?? If the stress is associated with an anxiety disorder, medications may be needed, some of which (like benzodiazepines) may enhance rather than alleviate low libido. Lifestyle There are lifestyle factors that may contribute significantly to low libido in men. These tend to be more readily remedied by simply changing or stopping the behavior. Among them: Smoking not only directly increases the risk of ED but indirectly impairs sexual arousal, according to a 2012 study from the University of Texas Austin.??Alcohol, when used in excess or over the course of years, redirects enzymes needed to synthesize testosterone from the testes to the liver, resulting in reduced testosterone levels.Obesity  directly impairs metabolism and hormone function, resulting in significantly reduced total and free testosterone. By contrast, exercise and weight loss not only enhances mood and energy levels but also improves sexual function and self-image. While the detrimental effects these behaviors are clear, it is never wise to pin low libido on single lifestyle factor without first conferring with a doctor to explore all other possible causes. A Word From Verywell If the loss of libido is affecting your relationship, you need to take extra care to avoid directing blame at yourself or your partner. Instead, you would be well served to approach solutions as a couple, neither assigning it as his issue or my issue but rather one to which you both actively participate. This requires open and honest communication about not only the physical symptoms of low libido but the emotional ones. Doing so allows you to identify which doctor or doctors are needed to diagnose, and hopefully, treat the condition. This may include an endocrinologist, urologist, chronic disease specialist, psychiatrist, sex therapist, or other health professional. There may not be a quick fix, but, with time and patience, a solution  may be found.   In the meantime, try to remind yourself that the loss of sexual desire is not the same thing as the loss of a desire for intimacy. Even when struggling with sexual dysfunction, make every effort to connect emotionally and physically. By doing so, you can forge a closer bond and may even end up strengthening your relationship.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Debate On Global Warming - 1239 Words

There is much controversy concerning global warming. The controversy takes the form of public debate that centers on five issues (Mazo 30). The first issue is whether or not global warming is occurring. The second issue is whether global warming is real and extent it has occurred in the recent decades. The third question relates to the causes of global warming. The fourth question centers on the effects of global warming. The fifth question is whether any action needs to be taken to contain global warming. The author concurs that global warming is real. Hence, the focus of the paper will be on causes of global warming. Discussion on what causes global warming has led to a significant split between scientists. However, both camps agree that global warming and climate change are occasioned by both natural and human or anthropogenic factors. The opposing views occur when it comes to the relative importance they assign to each set of factors (Mazo 35). This paper acknowledges that while both natural and human factors are responsible for global warming, much of global warming that has occurred in recent times is largely attributable to human activities. The following paragraphs support this position, although a small portion of the paper is also devoted to the opposite view that claims that global warming is largely due to natural factors. Many scientists around the globe have conducted research that has demonstrated that that human activity contribute the most to contemporaryShow MoreRelatedThe Debate Of Global Warming894 Words   |  4 PagesThe Debate of Global Warming Climate change is a hot-button topic in politics, conversation, and education. Both sides of the ongoing debate claim disastrous consequences. On one hand, the view of an economic focus could make the market worse. On the other, the end of life as we know it. This is a comparison essay between Al Gore s documentary a vocal advocate for global warming reform and a film made by deniers. In the film Unstoppable Solar Cycles: Rethinking Global warming. The creators expressRead MoreThe Debate On Global Warming1087 Words   |  5 PagesGlobal Warming Argumentive Essay Both Al Gore and Daniel Botkin have different arguments on global warming. They are both think very similar on the same topic. Because one part of the argument is serious, and the other one is not so much. But, the point is that both of their stories are pointing out to their views on this issue. But, according to Webster Dictionary, Global Warming is when the increase in the world’s temperature that is to believe to increase by carbon dioxide. Both of the authorsRead MoreDebates On Global Warming658 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿I. Global Warming: Fact or Fiction A. Background of the debate on the perceived global warming phenomenon 1. Temperature increase 2. Disparity and the reasons why B. Arguments for the perceived fact of human influence on global warming 1. The greenhouse effect 2. Global disaster C. Arguments that human influence on global warming is fictitious 1. Amount of CO2 2. Natural reasons for global warming One of the most longstanding and most passionately debated topics in the scientificRead MoreThe Debate Over Global Warming1499 Words   |  6 PagesThe global warming debate has been at the top of the list for environmentalists increasingly over the last twenty years. The controversy of global warming is either considered due to human activity or natural causes. Although the earth’s climate and temperatures have changed, that does not mean it is humanly caused. Despite the pretense linking the association between man and global warming, which is heavily supported by consensus of scientists, eco-sensitive politicians, and the effort to restrictRead MoreThe Debate over Global Warming1406 Words   |  6 Pagesproduction of this age, our population releases environmentally harmful substances like greenhouse gases into the air every day. In recent decades’ findings, these substances have been found to trap heat in the atmosphere over time, contributing to global warming. T o cut these emissions completely would bankrupt the world’s struggling, industry-dependent economy. Knowing that this isn’t a threat that will peak in our life time or even the next generation’s causes political progression to move slowly. IfRead MoreThe Debate Over Global Warming1063 Words   |  5 Pagesclimate change debate has been ongoing for nearly thirty years now, the debate is over the causation(s) of global warming. Temperatures on earth have increased approximately 2.0 °F since the early 20th century. Levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane have drastically increased within the atmosphere. Both sides within the debate surrounding global climate change can agree on these points. However; disagree on a number of other possible causations of global warming. Even though thereRead MoreEssay on The Global Warming Debate768 Words   |  4 PagesThe Global Warming Debate We are polluting the atmosphere and with an increasingly wide range of polluting substances and these are due to the fact that there are now so many people and their human activities are altering the chemical compositing of the atmosphere through the buildup of gases. By the end of this article, you will start to wonder about what this is doing to our world. What is global warming? Global warming takes place because human activitiesRead MoreGlobal Warming Debate Essay1241 Words   |  5 Pages In the controversy over whether Global Warming there is two sides in which people can choose either human caused or just Mother Nature doing her thing. Most scientists will tell you that Global Warming is mostly the cause of humans. While there are some who will disagree and say that it is just nature doing what it has done for thousands of years. For most scientists the topic of global warming is one that is caused by us humans. They have many facts data to back this up. Some examples of theseRead MoreThe Debate Over Global Warming Essay1249 Words   |  5 PagesAs the threat posed by global warming continues to mount, there has been much debate over how to stem the rise in global temperatures. Nearly all experts agree that the primary driver of global warming has been human activity. Over the last century and a half, human activity has released immense amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, altering the Earth’s climate. Yet, although there is a pressing need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, it is impossible toRead MoreUnderstanding the Global Warming Debate2393 Words   |  10 Pageschanging tides and atmospheric circulation, affects the global climate (Cunningham Cunningham, 2009, p.205). Scientific studies suggest that all these played a role in past global warming an d cooling periods. At this time there is no debate that the earth is warming. However, there is serious debate over the causes, extent, and consequences of the warming (Easton, 2009, p.156). There is conflict on whether humans are causing a global warming that could be disastrous to humans and all species of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Japanese Street Fashion - 2780 Words

Research question #1: What are the characteristics of the Japanese street fashion? Japanese Street Fashion By Jennie Gandhi [pic] While considered by many as daring, outlandish and provocative, Japanese fashion has come a long way from being just about kimonos and school uniforms. Their eye-popping and flamboyant outfits have largely been influenced by Japans huge underground club scene. Tokyo and Osaka is where Japanese Street Fashion is at its best. By adopting a mixture of current and traditional trends along with foreign and local labels, Japanese youth have created their own unique blend of fashion. Japanese street fashion has a variety of trends and styles. Youth were more elaborate in their dressing patterns and make-up. Bright†¦show more content†¦Japanese Street Fashion- Sweet Lolita Sweet Lolita, or ama-loli, is a childlike Lolita look, quite Kitsch. As with Gothic Lolita the look is inspired by Victoriana, but is also inspired by Edwardian looks. The key palette to the Sweet Lolita look is pastel colours and themes of fantasy. Alice in Wonderland is a popular inspiration source for this look. Accessories feature pom poms, bows and crowns. Fabrics are sugary colours and feature kawaii prints and gingham; Hello Kitty is a popular character with some the Sweet Lolita look. The look of a Sweet Lolita is inspired by anything childish, cute and princess-like. Make-up is kept simple and pretty to add to the childlike appearance of this look. Again knee high socks feature as a key accessory, and are often colourful or striped. Japanese Street Fashion- Punk Lolita This Lolita look is less pretty and childlike than Sweet Lolita and Gothic Lolita. It is most strongly influenced by the British punk movement, and the fashion culture in Camden, London and British designer Vivienne Westwood. The look combines some of the Victoriana elements of the Gothic Lolita look, but toughens it up with embellishments with safety pins, chains and tartan details. This look is the most androgynous of them all. Japanese Street Fashion- Lolita in the Western World Although LolitaShow MoreRelatedThe Gyaru Subculture in Japan1388 Words   |  6 Pagesexample of Japanese subculture which a group of people who follows a certain style of appearance, language and activities. By far, the most popular kawaii (cute) style in Japan is gyaru (Klein, R.D., 2013). The word ‘gyaru’ is a Japanese pronunciation of the word ‘gal’ or girl. This kind of street fashion had emerged in mid-1990s. Gyaru subculture is not only limited to a certain age of people but also has spreaded to the entire community in Japan. Until the mid-1960s, fashion among Japanese women wasRead MoreThe Effect of Globalization on Fashion with Special Reference to the Impact of Japanese Designs on the European Scene1527 Words   |  7 Pagesct Analyse the effect of ‘Globalization’ on fashion with special reference to the impact of Japanese designs on the European scene. The definition of globalisation is quite complex and extremely controversial. However globalization with reference to the fashion industry helps defines the development of what has been termed as „world fashion‟. Preferred garments of young people is quite often the same. A phenomenon made possible by the exploitative mechanisms of globalization. The globalizationRead MoreThe Effect of Globalization on Fashion with Special Reference to the Impact of Japanese Designs on the European Scene1521 Words   |  7 Pagesct Analyse the effect of ‘Globalization’ on fashion with special reference to the impact of Japanese designs on the European scene. 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Asian students perform better academically than US students Free Essays

Asian students perform better academically than U.S. students throughout the entire school year. We will write a custom essay sample on Asian students perform better academically than US students or any similar topic only for you Order Now In order to prove that Asian students do perform better, Harold W. Stevenson and his colleagues proposed a series of large cross-national studies, beginning 1980. Stevenson discussed his studies in the article â€Å"Learning from Asian Schools†. The studies compared Chinese, Japanese, and American children who sampled from first grade and fifth grade classrooms in elementary schools in Minneapolis, Chicago, Sendai, Beijing, and Taipei. The studies found that in mathematics average scores of the Asian first and fifth graders were higher than the American averages. When compared the scores from different grades, the studies found decline in American schools as well as improvement in Taiwan and steady high performance in Japan. In addition, the studies found that in reading the Asian students caught up by the fifth grade following the increased demands in Asian languages, although American first graders tended towards the top on these tests. The test results undoubtedly confirmed the truth about the superior performance of Asian students over American students. According to the studies, Stevenson found that there were three main reasons associated with Asian children†s success: cultural differences, educational system and teacher performance. Asian mothers considered the most important thing in their children†s life is to do well in school; education is equivalent to the children†s future. Therefore, Asian mothers hold high standards for their children†s academic performance, believing that the road to success is through effort, having positive attitudes about achievement, and studying diligently. In contrast, American mothers had very high satisfaction with their children†s academic performance because they lacked measurement standards for performance, and believed their children†s success came from being born with intelligence and being diligent. American mothers also placed a lesser emphasis on academic achievement because they believed their children†s childhood shouldn†t solely focus on school. Asian mothers† attitudes caused their children to work harder to improve their performance. In addition to the cultural difference mentioned above, the different education system also formed a barrier for American students through the road of success. In school daily life, American students spent most of their time in the classroom. Dissimilarly, Asian schools had frequent recesses and a longer lunch period that in turn maintained the students attention to the teachers. The after school activities and clubs in Asian schools made the school an enjoyable place, therefore, students appeared well behaved and well adjusted, which could be proven by fewer complains in school and better attendance by Asian students. Due to the clear academic goal, the more demanding curriculum for Asian students actually did not cause extraordinary stress. Asian teachers† performance also contributed to the students† academic achievements. Compared to American teachers† individual work and self-adjusted schedule, Asian teachers usually consult each other, worked as a group to design teaching techniques in following the national curriculum, hence provided the best understanding from the students. Asian teachers only spent part of their school time teaching and prepared the classes in the teacher†s room for rest of the working time; this allowed them to prepare their classes well. Asian teachers followed preplanned materials and assigned a â€Å"brief period of seatwork throughout the class period†(Stevenson 236), which provide a series of productive interaction and discussions for students. In contrast, American teachers had to cover all elementary school subjects and spent most of their time at school teaching, so they didn†t have enough time to prepare classes. In addition, American teachers explained concept first and gave seatwork later during class, thus reducing the students† attention. Even the Asian teachers† education background was not as high as American teachers, the â€Å"in-service training under the supervision of skilled models†(Stevenson, 236) used by Asian schools gave the teachers the skills to gain students attention, which included giving feedback to students, using more materials that can be manipulated and relating the subjects to the students† daily life. In conclusion, the U.S. had to create a cultural emphasis on academic success and education, which is not merely increase the length of school days but had to change the way of American teachers† jobs performance. Stevenson considered the culture difference might cause some biased results, so he proposed his studies by using wide range of scientific data to gain the precise statistics. According to Stevenson†s studies, Asian students perform better academically is a truism. Nevertheless, American schools will not achieve the same level of success if they completely imitate Asian schools. In addition, Stevenson merely compared the children†s scores might ignore their practice abilities. Although theories dominate practices, the good performance on test paper does not equal to the strong practice abilities. Undoubtedly, the great academic performance achieved by Asian schools is worth praise, however, it is very difficult to compare success factors between different cultures. Therefore, the ways to improve American schools† performance should be adjusted to fit in the need and want of American schools. In other words, merely introducing higher standards, longer school days, and new education systems cannot improve the performance of American schools. Simultaneously, it is very important for American schools to discard the dross and select the essential from Asian schools† academic experiences in order to establish a series of countermeasures. Once American schools recognize their shortcomings and build a new academic culture base on their advantage, American academic achievement will rise to world standards. When I was a third grader of elementary school in China, my Chinese teacher not only impressed me through her outstanding teaching performance but also evoked my interest in writing composition. In Chinese education standards, third grade of elementary school is the time to learn how to write a short narrative composition. I had no idea how to describe an affair†s process. On the first day of class for composition, I felt really nervous because I did not know what I was going to face. I thought the teacher would give us something to write, but what surprised me was that she started the class by telling us a tale of the fisherman and goldfish. I was immersed by the interesting story and felt completely relaxed. After the teacher finished the story, she distributed a copy of it to us and started a discussion about the story. Following a series of â€Å"what if, how and why† questions about the story under the teacher†s instruction, we reached an alliance that the writer†s abundant imagination and remarkable writing skills let readers fall into the story. The teacher did not ask us to write anything after the class; I had already readied to start my first composition in my mind, because I had understood how a good story could bring happiness to people. For the rest of my years in elementary school, I wrote compositions to entertain myself and finally could not live without it. The compositions that I wrote in the third grade were really ridiculous, but I always remembered and appreciated the teacher†s aspiration and encouragement. Without her positive feedback, I would never have benefited from writing Chinese composition. From my personal experience, I believe that Asian students do not gain the remarkable academic achievements by sheer good luck. In other words, the academic success of Asian schools is worthy of praise. How to cite Asian students perform better academically than US students, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Turn Taking in Conversations

Introduction Turn-taking entails the doing of something by participants to a particular activity one after the other. The art of turn-taking is indispensable for an orderly life in the society in general. This is no different when it comes to the art of conversing. Turn-taking mechanism is not restricted to conversation only but extends to other aspects of life like games, taking leadership position, serving meals at a table among others.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Turn Taking in Conversations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Despite the existence of other speech exchange systems like debates, meetings and interviews among others, this paper sets out to analyze turn-taking in conversation because it is the foundation of all speech exchange systems (Forman McCormick, 1995). Conversation as a means of communication is a two-way traffic that requires that turns be taken for information to be passed between the sender and the recipient. If every participant decided to make speech simultaneously, it would result in total confusion and there would be no communication between the participants. It is an important aspect of conversation since it forces all participants to listen and know when it is their turn to talk (Applebee, 1996). This enriches the conversation since everyone gets to understand what everyone else is saying. Therefore, when a speaker takes his turn in a conversation, it is expected that he will continue in the vein of the previous speaker for the conversation to flow (Sacks, 1992). This show respects to the views of the previous speaker and also indicates comprehension abilities. If a speaker diverts from the topic of discussion prematurely, it will be a sign of disrespect to the views of the previous speaker. This could also be interpreted to mean lack of the ability to understand what others are saying. The rules guiding conversation are usually established by the parties themselves. They are mostly influenced by the kind of relationship existing between the participants (Tannen, 1994). A conversation between adults will not be the same as that between an adult and a child. The social status of the participants in the two cases will necessitate different conversation techniques (Wells, 1999). This paper will review the role of turn-taking in conversation with regard to the communication between the couples in the case study. Literature Review Turn-taking is necessary in conversation because of the scarcity of time and the need of parties who are conversing to understand each other. It is a scarce commodity that people struggle to acquire just like a good in the market that does not meet the demands (Yule, 1996). It is an important tool in maintaining social relationships between parties conversing.Advertising Looking for essay on communication strategies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conver sation cannot be adequately analyzed outside the social context since it is just a tool used in interactions (Schegloff, 2002). Turn-taking takes place within the context of the conversation. For instance, it would be absurd for a participant to answer a greeting with a question. In the same vein, when a question is asked, the norm in conversation is that the next speaker should give an answer or seek for further clarifications on the question. The immediate environment of the conversers also needs to be taken into account since this affects the nature of the conversation. For instance, the way students will converse in a classroom environment is not the same way they will talk in the football pitch (Silverman, 2001). In some cultures, when one is speaking in a group with people of different age and social status, she/he is expected to be alive to the fact that the older ones speak first before the younger ones. This has the effect of pre-determining the turn-taking process in the c onversation. The distinguishing characteristics of a conversation that make use of turn-taking include the following: One participant speaks for a time as the rest listens. The other participants listen for a cue to take the turn to make contributions in the conversation. The turns between the participants are distributed to ensure that all participants participate in the conversation. The distribution is not necessarily equal, but each participant has his/her turn. Turn-taking techniques are used both by the previous and next speaker for a smooth flow in the conversation. The participants make use of repair mechanism to ensure that problems in the conversation are minimized. If there is an awkward pause or silence in the conversation, both the previous and next speaker moves to cure this conversational defect Situations where multiple participants simultaneously takes a turn are drastically reduced (Schegloff, 2002). Generally, however, unlike other speech-exchange systems like d ebates, interviews meetings and others, turn-taking in conversation is spontaneous and not predetermined (Drew, 1992).. There is also no specification on how the conversation will flow among the parties. One party can dominate the conversation without interfering with the sequential organization of the conversation. He/she only needs to get cues from the other party that they are attentive for the conversation to proceed (Bales, 1950). Secondly, it is also possible for one to converse alone. However, this type of conversation will lack a very important element of conversation since there will be no turn-taking. This will be a kind of a monologue. Sequential Organization Turn-taking in conversation does not stop new entrants into the conversation. This means that the cycle can be broken to allow entry and exit while the conversation continues. This is clearly illustrated at line 91 when Bob breaks to answer the phone but resumes at line 125 with the same vein of the conversation.Adve rtising We will write a custom essay sample on Turn Taking in Conversations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More ((telephone rings)) en so on;= en so on ¿ 91 ((answers phone)†¦.. 125 Bob: an: y’kno:w,= that w’z gra:nd;= she sorda†¦. A lapse or pause may occur but may not necessarily discontinue the conversation. The conversation does not need to be lineal, moving from one definite speaker to another. A new participant may get into an already continuing conversation without interfering with the general drift of the conversation. All he/she needs to do is time the turn appropriately. The caller who speaks to Bob from line 92 illustrates this. The problems associated with conversations include abrupt change of topics by a participant before the rest of the parties are ready to move to the next topic. This of essence also means that other participants might have problems in maintaining the same topic of discussi on for a long period of time. This may be caused by one party not being able to bring in new dimensions in the issue under discussion. He/she keeps on repeating what the rest of the parties have said. In addition, they may also have difficulties in sustaining the conversation in the same vein and keep on jumping from one topic to another. The couples in the case study, Bob and Anne are able to communicate very well with each other despite the fact that Bob seems to dominate the conversation. Techniques in allocating Turns There are several methods of transitions in conversations. One may be allowed the turn to speak expressly by the previous speaker. For instance if there is a group conversation, the person who has the turn may ask a direct question to a particular person and this will give him/her the power to take the turn in the conversation (Palincsar, 1986). In the case study, this is seen in line 232 when Ann asks a question to automatically signal Bob that he needs to take th e turn. This he does in line 233.Advertising Looking for essay on communication strategies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 232 Ann: W’ whï‚ ­y: did ee hafta do: that. 233 Bob:  ¿ 234 (0.3) Turn taking may also involve silence. When the participant on the floor becomes silent, then that is a signal that the floor is open to the next speaker. In some cultures when an older person is scolding a younger person, it is expected that the younger person would not respond out of respect to the older person (Ten, 1998). It is a way of showing remorse. The older person my just continue in a monologue, but this will not make it less a conversation. The other technique involves mentioning the name of the person expected to take the turn by the person allocating the turn. There is also the use of tag questions in turn allocations. Phrases like can you believe that? or don’t you agree? expects a response from the listening party. Tag questions can be used by the previous speaker to give up his turn by indicating to the other parties that he/she expects the turn to be taken by someone else (Liddicoat , 2007). There is also an unwritten rule that whoever starts first will have the first bite at the cherry, unless in a situation where there are angry exchanges between the parties and no one is willing to let go of the turn (Levinson, 1983). When more than one participant takes the turn at the same time, one may be forced to give up the turn to the other. The use of continuers like â€Å"uh†, â€Å"mm†, â€Å"ooh† and many others also act as signs that the participant expects the previous speaker to continue speaking. Ann makes use of these in the case study. 59 Bob: b’d is in based in Me:lbern. 60 Ann: Mm [hm, 61 Bob: [pt ·hh (.) en he:r ro:le;= is go:ing ta One of the factors determining turn taking in conversations is adjacency pairs. (Levinson, 1983). This refers to a conversation a technique that pre-determines the response of the next speaker. A good example is request-decline/approval, offer-acceptance, and question-answer situations among other s (Levinson, 1983). In this technique, one speaker picks the next speaker to take the turn by the kind of statements he/she make. In a question-answer scenario, whoever the question is directed to amongst the participants takes the turn. The concept of adjacency pairs is also vital in indicating whether the next speaker was listening for his/her turn or not (Duncan, 1972). When a participant is greeted and he/she responds by asking a question, it is an indication that the participant was not keen on taking the turn in that particular conversation. Turn-taking in the case study is hampered by the long pauses taken by the Bob. Anne does not also encourage the conversation since she has reduced herself to an active listener rather than a party to the conversation. There is also interference by the telephone call that Bob receives. However, being couples, they seem to pick very easily from where the conversation stopped. They understand each other very well and there are no serious inte rruptions between themselves. Transitions in Conversations The conversational coherence between parties is usually determined by how smooth the transitions are from one speaker to another (Shotter, 1995). This transition can only be smooth if every participant respects the turn-taking mechanism in the conversational process. Silence in conversations act as transition points since they signal the next speaker to take his/her turn (Deborah, 2001).Bob does this in line 233 and 235 when Annie fails to take the turn. Bob:  ¿ 234 (0.3) 235 Bob: I(h) ha(h)ve ï‚ ­no(h)t-ï‚ ­ godda clue:. 236 (0.7) This occurs mostly in cases where parties to the conversation self-select to take turns and there are no automatic allocations of turns during the conversation. At line 125, Bob takes the turn after having broken off to answer to the phone. Bob: an: y’kno:w,= that w’z gra:nd;= she sorda 126 said;= well he:y;= y’know that’s:: ï  §wï  §-what 127 we wanna kno:w  ¿= en (0.5) j’ sorda wennon 128 fr’m the:re ¿= en (0.5) ï‚ ­Ã‚ °jeezus ‘n bloody 129 drï‚ ­in:k;= could she drï‚ ­inkhh °Ã¯â€š ­. This is a way of indicating to her partner that the conversation between them has resumed. Silence is also effective in ordering conversation in that it allows the same speaker some breathing space before proceeding with the conversation (Deborah, 2001). It is also an opportunity for the next speaker to digest the direction which the conversation and decides whether to steer it in that direction or change course. Since participants to conversations tend to be generally uncomfortable with long pauses or lapses, it is expected that the transition from one turn to the other will not be long (Goldenberg, 1993). In the case study, Bob seems to get uncormfortable with Ann’s prolong silence when she is supposed to take the turn in line 236. The conversation goes as follows: W’ whï‚ ­y: did ee hafta do: that. 2 33 Bob:  ¿ 234 (0.3) 235 Bob: I(h) ha(h)ve ï‚ ­no(h)t-ï‚ ­ godda clue:. 236 (0.7) This force Bob himself in line 237 to allow Anne to take her turn. For their to be a smooth transition between one speaker to another, there is need of each party to listen to one another not only out of politeness, but also in order to maintain the conversational coherence. Repair Mechanisms The repair mechanisms available in a conversation are as varied as the mischief they intend to cure. For a free flow of speech in a conversation, there must not be lapses and pauses that cause discomfort among speakers (Schiffrin, 1994). When dealing with trouble, it is always the previous speaker or the turn following the one which the trouble occurred (Schegloff, 2002). In the case study, at line 145 Ann encourages Bob to continue speaking after Bobs monologue by uttering the sound â€Å"ooh†. 144 Bob: hou:r en a ha:lf ¿ or- nearly two hou:r[s: ¿ 145 Ann: [ï‚ ­Hooh. 146 Bob:  ·hh (thut-) on: topev the boddle a re:d, (0.4) This is a repair initiating effort, which ensures that Bob does not think that Ann is not listening. Other repair mechanism includes the giving up of a turn by one speaker should they find themselves taking a turn at the same time (Burbules, 1993). Implication for Language Teaching The art of conversation analysis is very important especially for language students since it gives students confidence. This is because they are able to analyze and understand the causes of lapses, pauses and other limitations of conversation and other speech exchange systems. Turn-taking also assists the student to understand the multifaceted nature of conversation and the intricacies involved in ensuring that it flows freely. The significance of turn-taking in the study of languages is mostly appreciated by non-native speakers of the English language. This is because when the subject is broken down and dissected in pieces as is done in conversational analysis, it gets demystified and therefore easy to understand. Conclusion This paper has reviewed the role of turn-taking in context of the recorded conversation between the couples in the case study. It has shown that turn-taking plays a key part in ensuring that conversation between participants flows freely. It also averts friction and confusion that would be the natural consequence it was not used in conversation. The paper has also endeavoured to highlight the repair mechanisms available to participants who take turns to make speech in conversation. The role of transition techniques in ensuring smooth turn-taking and flow of conversation has also been outlined. The techniques of allocating turns during conversations have also been discussed. Previous speaker allocation has been distinguished from a situation where individuals allocate themselves the turn to speak The paper has further established that turn-taking brings about sequential organization in a conversation. The sequence need not be l inear or one directional, as long as all the participants take their turns at the appropriate time. The significance of turn-taking to the teaching of language was also highlighted. It was observed that language students who take part in conversational analysis gain confidence and are able to improve not only their conversation but communication skills generally. References Applebee, A. (1996). Curriculum as conversation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bales, R. (1950). Interaction Process Analysis. Cambridge, Mass: Addison Wesley. Burbules, N. (1993). Dialogue in teaching: Theory and practice. New York: College Press. Deborah, C. (2001). Working with spoken discourse. London: Thousand Oaks. Drew, P., Heritage, J. (1992). Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Duncan, S. (1972). Some Signals and rules for taking Speaking turns in conversations. Journal of personalities and Social Psychology, 23, 283-92. Forman, E. A., McC ormick, D. E. (1995). Discourse analysis: A socio-cultural perspective. Remedial and Special Education, 16, 150-158. Goldenberg, C. (1993). Instructional conversations: Promoting comprehension through discussion. The Reading Teacher, 46, 316-326. Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Liddicoat, A. (2007). An introduction to conversation analysis. Portland: Continuum Publishing Group. Palincsar, A. S. (1986). The role of dialogue in providing scaffolded instruction. Educational Psychologist, 21, 73-98. Sacks, H. (Ed.) (1992). Lectures on Conversation. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Schegloff, E. A., Koshik, I., Jacoby, S., Olsher D. (2002). Conversation analysis and applied linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, 3-31. Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to discourse. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Shotter, J. (1995). In conversation: Joint action, shared intentionality, and the ethics of conversation. Theory and Psychology, 5, 49-73. Silve rman, D. (2001). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analyzing talk, text and interaction. London: Sage. Tannen, D. (1984). Conversational style: Analyzing talk among friends. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Ten, P. (1998). Doing conversation analysis: A practical Stride. London: Sage Wells, G. (1999). Dialogic inquiry: Toward a socio-cultural practice and theory of education. New York: Cambridge University Press. Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. This essay on Turn Taking in Conversations was written and submitted by user Maxx Serrano to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.