Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Debate On Global Warming - 1239 Words

There is much controversy concerning global warming. The controversy takes the form of public debate that centers on five issues (Mazo 30). The first issue is whether or not global warming is occurring. The second issue is whether global warming is real and extent it has occurred in the recent decades. The third question relates to the causes of global warming. The fourth question centers on the effects of global warming. The fifth question is whether any action needs to be taken to contain global warming. The author concurs that global warming is real. Hence, the focus of the paper will be on causes of global warming. Discussion on what causes global warming has led to a significant split between scientists. However, both camps agree that global warming and climate change are occasioned by both natural and human or anthropogenic factors. The opposing views occur when it comes to the relative importance they assign to each set of factors (Mazo 35). This paper acknowledges that while both natural and human factors are responsible for global warming, much of global warming that has occurred in recent times is largely attributable to human activities. The following paragraphs support this position, although a small portion of the paper is also devoted to the opposite view that claims that global warming is largely due to natural factors. Many scientists around the globe have conducted research that has demonstrated that that human activity contribute the most to contemporaryShow MoreRelatedThe Debate Of Global Warming894 Words   |  4 PagesThe Debate of Global Warming Climate change is a hot-button topic in politics, conversation, and education. Both sides of the ongoing debate claim disastrous consequences. On one hand, the view of an economic focus could make the market worse. On the other, the end of life as we know it. This is a comparison essay between Al Gore s documentary a vocal advocate for global warming reform and a film made by deniers. In the film Unstoppable Solar Cycles: Rethinking Global warming. The creators expressRead MoreThe Debate On Global Warming1087 Words   |  5 PagesGlobal Warming Argumentive Essay Both Al Gore and Daniel Botkin have different arguments on global warming. They are both think very similar on the same topic. Because one part of the argument is serious, and the other one is not so much. But, the point is that both of their stories are pointing out to their views on this issue. But, according to Webster Dictionary, Global Warming is when the increase in the world’s temperature that is to believe to increase by carbon dioxide. Both of the authorsRead MoreDebates On Global Warming658 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿I. Global Warming: Fact or Fiction A. Background of the debate on the perceived global warming phenomenon 1. Temperature increase 2. Disparity and the reasons why B. Arguments for the perceived fact of human influence on global warming 1. The greenhouse effect 2. Global disaster C. Arguments that human influence on global warming is fictitious 1. Amount of CO2 2. Natural reasons for global warming One of the most longstanding and most passionately debated topics in the scientificRead MoreThe Debate Over Global Warming1499 Words   |  6 PagesThe global warming debate has been at the top of the list for environmentalists increasingly over the last twenty years. The controversy of global warming is either considered due to human activity or natural causes. Although the earth’s climate and temperatures have changed, that does not mean it is humanly caused. Despite the pretense linking the association between man and global warming, which is heavily supported by consensus of scientists, eco-sensitive politicians, and the effort to restrictRead MoreThe Debate over Global Warming1406 Words   |  6 Pagesproduction of this age, our population releases environmentally harmful substances like greenhouse gases into the air every day. In recent decades’ findings, these substances have been found to trap heat in the atmosphere over time, contributing to global warming. T o cut these emissions completely would bankrupt the world’s struggling, industry-dependent economy. Knowing that this isn’t a threat that will peak in our life time or even the next generation’s causes political progression to move slowly. IfRead MoreThe Debate Over Global Warming1063 Words   |  5 Pagesclimate change debate has been ongoing for nearly thirty years now, the debate is over the causation(s) of global warming. Temperatures on earth have increased approximately 2.0 °F since the early 20th century. Levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane have drastically increased within the atmosphere. Both sides within the debate surrounding global climate change can agree on these points. However; disagree on a number of other possible causations of global warming. Even though thereRead MoreEssay on The Global Warming Debate768 Words   |  4 PagesThe Global Warming Debate We are polluting the atmosphere and with an increasingly wide range of polluting substances and these are due to the fact that there are now so many people and their human activities are altering the chemical compositing of the atmosphere through the buildup of gases. By the end of this article, you will start to wonder about what this is doing to our world. What is global warming? Global warming takes place because human activitiesRead MoreGlobal Warming Debate Essay1241 Words   |  5 Pages In the controversy over whether Global Warming there is two sides in which people can choose either human caused or just Mother Nature doing her thing. Most scientists will tell you that Global Warming is mostly the cause of humans. While there are some who will disagree and say that it is just nature doing what it has done for thousands of years. For most scientists the topic of global warming is one that is caused by us humans. They have many facts data to back this up. Some examples of theseRead MoreThe Debate Over Global Warming Essay1249 Words   |  5 PagesAs the threat posed by global warming continues to mount, there has been much debate over how to stem the rise in global temperatures. Nearly all experts agree that the primary driver of global warming has been human activity. Over the last century and a half, human activity has released immense amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, altering the Earth’s climate. Yet, although there is a pressing need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, it is impossible toRead MoreUnderstanding the Global Warming Debate2393 Words   |  10 Pageschanging tides and atmospheric circulation, affects the global climate (Cunningham Cunningham, 2009, p.205). Scientific studies suggest that all these played a role in past global warming an d cooling periods. At this time there is no debate that the earth is warming. However, there is serious debate over the causes, extent, and consequences of the warming (Easton, 2009, p.156). There is conflict on whether humans are causing a global warming that could be disastrous to humans and all species of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Japanese Street Fashion - 2780 Words

Research question #1: What are the characteristics of the Japanese street fashion? Japanese Street Fashion By Jennie Gandhi [pic] While considered by many as daring, outlandish and provocative, Japanese fashion has come a long way from being just about kimonos and school uniforms. Their eye-popping and flamboyant outfits have largely been influenced by Japans huge underground club scene. Tokyo and Osaka is where Japanese Street Fashion is at its best. By adopting a mixture of current and traditional trends along with foreign and local labels, Japanese youth have created their own unique blend of fashion. Japanese street fashion has a variety of trends and styles. Youth were more elaborate in their dressing patterns and make-up. Bright†¦show more content†¦Japanese Street Fashion- Sweet Lolita Sweet Lolita, or ama-loli, is a childlike Lolita look, quite Kitsch. As with Gothic Lolita the look is inspired by Victoriana, but is also inspired by Edwardian looks. The key palette to the Sweet Lolita look is pastel colours and themes of fantasy. Alice in Wonderland is a popular inspiration source for this look. Accessories feature pom poms, bows and crowns. Fabrics are sugary colours and feature kawaii prints and gingham; Hello Kitty is a popular character with some the Sweet Lolita look. The look of a Sweet Lolita is inspired by anything childish, cute and princess-like. Make-up is kept simple and pretty to add to the childlike appearance of this look. Again knee high socks feature as a key accessory, and are often colourful or striped. Japanese Street Fashion- Punk Lolita This Lolita look is less pretty and childlike than Sweet Lolita and Gothic Lolita. It is most strongly influenced by the British punk movement, and the fashion culture in Camden, London and British designer Vivienne Westwood. The look combines some of the Victoriana elements of the Gothic Lolita look, but toughens it up with embellishments with safety pins, chains and tartan details. This look is the most androgynous of them all. Japanese Street Fashion- Lolita in the Western World Although LolitaShow MoreRelatedThe Gyaru Subculture in Japan1388 Words   |  6 Pagesexample of Japanese subculture which a group of people who follows a certain style of appearance, language and activities. By far, the most popular kawaii (cute) style in Japan is gyaru (Klein, R.D., 2013). The word ‘gyaru’ is a Japanese pronunciation of the word ‘gal’ or girl. This kind of street fashion had emerged in mid-1990s. Gyaru subculture is not only limited to a certain age of people but also has spreaded to the entire community in Japan. Until the mid-1960s, fashion among Japanese women wasRead MoreThe Effect of Globalization on Fashion with Special Reference to the Impact of Japanese Designs on the European Scene1527 Words   |  7 Pagesct Analyse the effect of ‘Globalization’ on fashion with special reference to the impact of Japanese designs on the European scene. The definition of globalisation is quite complex and extremely controversial. However globalization with reference to the fashion industry helps defines the development of what has been termed as „world fashion‟. Preferred garments of young people is quite often the same. A phenomenon made possible by the exploitative mechanisms of globalization. The globalizationRead MoreThe Effect of Globalization on Fashion with Special Reference to the Impact of Japanese Designs on the European Scene1521 Words   |  7 Pagesct Analyse the effect of ‘Globalization’ on fashion with special reference to the impact of Japanese designs on the European scene. The definition of globalisation is quite complex and extremely controversial. However globalization with reference to the fashion industry helps defines the development of what has been termed as „world fashion‟. Preferred garments of young people is quite often the same. A phenomenon made possible by the exploitative mechanisms of globalization. The globalization ofRead MoreWhen People Talk About The Word â€Å"Fashion,† It Automobility1676 Words   |  7 Pagesword â€Å"fashion,† it automobility provides a sense of popular styles of clothing, accessories, and makeup. Fashion influences not only on people’s behaviors, but also influences the society as a whole, such as socially and economically. In Adorned in Dreams, the author Elizabeth Wilson, introduces that fashion is a form of art, and people can use fashion to express their ideas, beliefs, and desires. Wilson also introduces the history of fashions in order to prove that people can use fashion to expressRead MoreTokyo There Is The Epicenter For Style And Modern Culture Of Young Japanese People1025 Words   |  5 PagesOut of all the fashion capitals of the world one of the most underrated would be Tokyo. People think because of their traditional and work oriented lifestyles they do not have a strong sense of style. This is far from the truth. In Tok yo there is a street called Harajuku which is the epicenter for style and modern culture of young Japanese people. Harajuku received its popularity in the early 1990’s by fashion photographer Shoi Aoki, who founded the magazine FRUiTS which opened up this cultural phenomenaRead MoreMarketing And Advertising Of Fashion Marketing Essay1413 Words   |  6 Pagesplay a critical role in the fashion industry; they are various activities involved in building consumer relationships and stimulating consumer purchases by satisfying their needs. The primary goal of fashion marketing is evident: supplying the right merchandise, to the right customers, at the right time, in the right place. Often confused as marketing, Advertising is a subset of marketing; it is a single component of promotion in the marketing mix. The process of fashion marketing is difficult dueRead MoreFashion Marketing And Its Impact On Consumer s Design Preferences Essay2152 Words   |  9 Pagesto the market. (Ox ford English Dictionary) Fashion Marketing differs from the marketing of other goods because of the uniqueness of the merchandise. â€Å"According to the Parson’s School of Design, fashion marketing is the process of analyzing, developing, and marketing current fashion trends into sales strategies.† (IJMBT) In fashion marketing, consumers are the creators by virtue of their adoption and rejection of new trends and styles. Furthermore, fashion is integral to the construction and communicationRead MoreLouis Vuitton1462 Words   |  6 PagesLouis Vuitton Presentation of the company Louis Vuitton is an international luxury French fashion house specialized in trunks and leather goods, founded by Louis Vuitton in 1854. As an emblem of the French luxury, Louis Vuitton knew how to make way on the international scene, by advancing an image of quality, elegance and refinement. Today, Louis Vuitton is one of the most recognizable and powerful brands in the world with more than 300 stores in 44 countries around the world and 2,7 billion ofRead MoreCritical Analysis Of Faces Of Japan1221 Words   |  5 PagesUnger, former foreign affairs editorial writer for the New York Times, has stated and debunked said stereotypes in his editorial titled Faces of Japan. In it, Unger argues that Japanese stereotypes are utterly incorrect and the presumptions surrounding Japanese culture are outdated. Japan’s culture is not static, Japanese people are not spending every living moment in remorse after the events of WWII. Unger argues this point through the explicit comparison of Japan in 1992 to Japan in 1945. The goalRead MoreFast Retailing Has Competitive Advantages Essay970 Words   |  4 Pageslocation in Canada will be at CF Toronto Eaton Centre. (CO, 2016b) Uniqlo will be located on the third floor inside the Dundas Atrium, between Nordstrom and HM, situated as a high traffic spot that attracts ttention through its billboards, lights, street performances and other attractions. (TECOP03 floorplan, no date) UNIQLO is seeking to build its brand through network of global flagship stores. Global flagship stores serve as hubs to get out the UNIQLO message, and concept of high-quality

Asian students perform better academically than US students Free Essays

Asian students perform better academically than U.S. students throughout the entire school year. We will write a custom essay sample on Asian students perform better academically than US students or any similar topic only for you Order Now In order to prove that Asian students do perform better, Harold W. Stevenson and his colleagues proposed a series of large cross-national studies, beginning 1980. Stevenson discussed his studies in the article â€Å"Learning from Asian Schools†. The studies compared Chinese, Japanese, and American children who sampled from first grade and fifth grade classrooms in elementary schools in Minneapolis, Chicago, Sendai, Beijing, and Taipei. The studies found that in mathematics average scores of the Asian first and fifth graders were higher than the American averages. When compared the scores from different grades, the studies found decline in American schools as well as improvement in Taiwan and steady high performance in Japan. In addition, the studies found that in reading the Asian students caught up by the fifth grade following the increased demands in Asian languages, although American first graders tended towards the top on these tests. The test results undoubtedly confirmed the truth about the superior performance of Asian students over American students. According to the studies, Stevenson found that there were three main reasons associated with Asian children†s success: cultural differences, educational system and teacher performance. Asian mothers considered the most important thing in their children†s life is to do well in school; education is equivalent to the children†s future. Therefore, Asian mothers hold high standards for their children†s academic performance, believing that the road to success is through effort, having positive attitudes about achievement, and studying diligently. In contrast, American mothers had very high satisfaction with their children†s academic performance because they lacked measurement standards for performance, and believed their children†s success came from being born with intelligence and being diligent. American mothers also placed a lesser emphasis on academic achievement because they believed their children†s childhood shouldn†t solely focus on school. Asian mothers† attitudes caused their children to work harder to improve their performance. In addition to the cultural difference mentioned above, the different education system also formed a barrier for American students through the road of success. In school daily life, American students spent most of their time in the classroom. Dissimilarly, Asian schools had frequent recesses and a longer lunch period that in turn maintained the students attention to the teachers. The after school activities and clubs in Asian schools made the school an enjoyable place, therefore, students appeared well behaved and well adjusted, which could be proven by fewer complains in school and better attendance by Asian students. Due to the clear academic goal, the more demanding curriculum for Asian students actually did not cause extraordinary stress. Asian teachers† performance also contributed to the students† academic achievements. Compared to American teachers† individual work and self-adjusted schedule, Asian teachers usually consult each other, worked as a group to design teaching techniques in following the national curriculum, hence provided the best understanding from the students. Asian teachers only spent part of their school time teaching and prepared the classes in the teacher†s room for rest of the working time; this allowed them to prepare their classes well. Asian teachers followed preplanned materials and assigned a â€Å"brief period of seatwork throughout the class period†(Stevenson 236), which provide a series of productive interaction and discussions for students. In contrast, American teachers had to cover all elementary school subjects and spent most of their time at school teaching, so they didn†t have enough time to prepare classes. In addition, American teachers explained concept first and gave seatwork later during class, thus reducing the students† attention. Even the Asian teachers† education background was not as high as American teachers, the â€Å"in-service training under the supervision of skilled models†(Stevenson, 236) used by Asian schools gave the teachers the skills to gain students attention, which included giving feedback to students, using more materials that can be manipulated and relating the subjects to the students† daily life. In conclusion, the U.S. had to create a cultural emphasis on academic success and education, which is not merely increase the length of school days but had to change the way of American teachers† jobs performance. Stevenson considered the culture difference might cause some biased results, so he proposed his studies by using wide range of scientific data to gain the precise statistics. According to Stevenson†s studies, Asian students perform better academically is a truism. Nevertheless, American schools will not achieve the same level of success if they completely imitate Asian schools. In addition, Stevenson merely compared the children†s scores might ignore their practice abilities. Although theories dominate practices, the good performance on test paper does not equal to the strong practice abilities. Undoubtedly, the great academic performance achieved by Asian schools is worth praise, however, it is very difficult to compare success factors between different cultures. Therefore, the ways to improve American schools† performance should be adjusted to fit in the need and want of American schools. In other words, merely introducing higher standards, longer school days, and new education systems cannot improve the performance of American schools. Simultaneously, it is very important for American schools to discard the dross and select the essential from Asian schools† academic experiences in order to establish a series of countermeasures. Once American schools recognize their shortcomings and build a new academic culture base on their advantage, American academic achievement will rise to world standards. When I was a third grader of elementary school in China, my Chinese teacher not only impressed me through her outstanding teaching performance but also evoked my interest in writing composition. In Chinese education standards, third grade of elementary school is the time to learn how to write a short narrative composition. I had no idea how to describe an affair†s process. On the first day of class for composition, I felt really nervous because I did not know what I was going to face. I thought the teacher would give us something to write, but what surprised me was that she started the class by telling us a tale of the fisherman and goldfish. I was immersed by the interesting story and felt completely relaxed. After the teacher finished the story, she distributed a copy of it to us and started a discussion about the story. Following a series of â€Å"what if, how and why† questions about the story under the teacher†s instruction, we reached an alliance that the writer†s abundant imagination and remarkable writing skills let readers fall into the story. The teacher did not ask us to write anything after the class; I had already readied to start my first composition in my mind, because I had understood how a good story could bring happiness to people. For the rest of my years in elementary school, I wrote compositions to entertain myself and finally could not live without it. The compositions that I wrote in the third grade were really ridiculous, but I always remembered and appreciated the teacher†s aspiration and encouragement. Without her positive feedback, I would never have benefited from writing Chinese composition. From my personal experience, I believe that Asian students do not gain the remarkable academic achievements by sheer good luck. In other words, the academic success of Asian schools is worthy of praise. How to cite Asian students perform better academically than US students, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Turn Taking in Conversations

Introduction Turn-taking entails the doing of something by participants to a particular activity one after the other. The art of turn-taking is indispensable for an orderly life in the society in general. This is no different when it comes to the art of conversing. Turn-taking mechanism is not restricted to conversation only but extends to other aspects of life like games, taking leadership position, serving meals at a table among others.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Turn Taking in Conversations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Despite the existence of other speech exchange systems like debates, meetings and interviews among others, this paper sets out to analyze turn-taking in conversation because it is the foundation of all speech exchange systems (Forman McCormick, 1995). Conversation as a means of communication is a two-way traffic that requires that turns be taken for information to be passed between the sender and the recipient. If every participant decided to make speech simultaneously, it would result in total confusion and there would be no communication between the participants. It is an important aspect of conversation since it forces all participants to listen and know when it is their turn to talk (Applebee, 1996). This enriches the conversation since everyone gets to understand what everyone else is saying. Therefore, when a speaker takes his turn in a conversation, it is expected that he will continue in the vein of the previous speaker for the conversation to flow (Sacks, 1992). This show respects to the views of the previous speaker and also indicates comprehension abilities. If a speaker diverts from the topic of discussion prematurely, it will be a sign of disrespect to the views of the previous speaker. This could also be interpreted to mean lack of the ability to understand what others are saying. The rules guiding conversation are usually established by the parties themselves. They are mostly influenced by the kind of relationship existing between the participants (Tannen, 1994). A conversation between adults will not be the same as that between an adult and a child. The social status of the participants in the two cases will necessitate different conversation techniques (Wells, 1999). This paper will review the role of turn-taking in conversation with regard to the communication between the couples in the case study. Literature Review Turn-taking is necessary in conversation because of the scarcity of time and the need of parties who are conversing to understand each other. It is a scarce commodity that people struggle to acquire just like a good in the market that does not meet the demands (Yule, 1996). It is an important tool in maintaining social relationships between parties conversing.Advertising Looking for essay on communication strategies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conver sation cannot be adequately analyzed outside the social context since it is just a tool used in interactions (Schegloff, 2002). Turn-taking takes place within the context of the conversation. For instance, it would be absurd for a participant to answer a greeting with a question. In the same vein, when a question is asked, the norm in conversation is that the next speaker should give an answer or seek for further clarifications on the question. The immediate environment of the conversers also needs to be taken into account since this affects the nature of the conversation. For instance, the way students will converse in a classroom environment is not the same way they will talk in the football pitch (Silverman, 2001). In some cultures, when one is speaking in a group with people of different age and social status, she/he is expected to be alive to the fact that the older ones speak first before the younger ones. This has the effect of pre-determining the turn-taking process in the c onversation. The distinguishing characteristics of a conversation that make use of turn-taking include the following: One participant speaks for a time as the rest listens. The other participants listen for a cue to take the turn to make contributions in the conversation. The turns between the participants are distributed to ensure that all participants participate in the conversation. The distribution is not necessarily equal, but each participant has his/her turn. Turn-taking techniques are used both by the previous and next speaker for a smooth flow in the conversation. The participants make use of repair mechanism to ensure that problems in the conversation are minimized. If there is an awkward pause or silence in the conversation, both the previous and next speaker moves to cure this conversational defect Situations where multiple participants simultaneously takes a turn are drastically reduced (Schegloff, 2002). Generally, however, unlike other speech-exchange systems like d ebates, interviews meetings and others, turn-taking in conversation is spontaneous and not predetermined (Drew, 1992).. There is also no specification on how the conversation will flow among the parties. One party can dominate the conversation without interfering with the sequential organization of the conversation. He/she only needs to get cues from the other party that they are attentive for the conversation to proceed (Bales, 1950). Secondly, it is also possible for one to converse alone. However, this type of conversation will lack a very important element of conversation since there will be no turn-taking. This will be a kind of a monologue. Sequential Organization Turn-taking in conversation does not stop new entrants into the conversation. This means that the cycle can be broken to allow entry and exit while the conversation continues. This is clearly illustrated at line 91 when Bob breaks to answer the phone but resumes at line 125 with the same vein of the conversation.Adve rtising We will write a custom essay sample on Turn Taking in Conversations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More ((telephone rings)) en so on;= en so on ¿ 91 ((answers phone)†¦.. 125 Bob: an: y’kno:w,= that w’z gra:nd;= she sorda†¦. A lapse or pause may occur but may not necessarily discontinue the conversation. The conversation does not need to be lineal, moving from one definite speaker to another. A new participant may get into an already continuing conversation without interfering with the general drift of the conversation. All he/she needs to do is time the turn appropriately. The caller who speaks to Bob from line 92 illustrates this. The problems associated with conversations include abrupt change of topics by a participant before the rest of the parties are ready to move to the next topic. This of essence also means that other participants might have problems in maintaining the same topic of discussi on for a long period of time. This may be caused by one party not being able to bring in new dimensions in the issue under discussion. He/she keeps on repeating what the rest of the parties have said. In addition, they may also have difficulties in sustaining the conversation in the same vein and keep on jumping from one topic to another. The couples in the case study, Bob and Anne are able to communicate very well with each other despite the fact that Bob seems to dominate the conversation. Techniques in allocating Turns There are several methods of transitions in conversations. One may be allowed the turn to speak expressly by the previous speaker. For instance if there is a group conversation, the person who has the turn may ask a direct question to a particular person and this will give him/her the power to take the turn in the conversation (Palincsar, 1986). In the case study, this is seen in line 232 when Ann asks a question to automatically signal Bob that he needs to take th e turn. This he does in line 233.Advertising Looking for essay on communication strategies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 232 Ann: W’ whï‚ ­y: did ee hafta do: that. 233 Bob:  ¿ 234 (0.3) Turn taking may also involve silence. When the participant on the floor becomes silent, then that is a signal that the floor is open to the next speaker. In some cultures when an older person is scolding a younger person, it is expected that the younger person would not respond out of respect to the older person (Ten, 1998). It is a way of showing remorse. The older person my just continue in a monologue, but this will not make it less a conversation. The other technique involves mentioning the name of the person expected to take the turn by the person allocating the turn. There is also the use of tag questions in turn allocations. Phrases like can you believe that? or don’t you agree? expects a response from the listening party. Tag questions can be used by the previous speaker to give up his turn by indicating to the other parties that he/she expects the turn to be taken by someone else (Liddicoat , 2007). There is also an unwritten rule that whoever starts first will have the first bite at the cherry, unless in a situation where there are angry exchanges between the parties and no one is willing to let go of the turn (Levinson, 1983). When more than one participant takes the turn at the same time, one may be forced to give up the turn to the other. The use of continuers like â€Å"uh†, â€Å"mm†, â€Å"ooh† and many others also act as signs that the participant expects the previous speaker to continue speaking. Ann makes use of these in the case study. 59 Bob: b’d is in based in Me:lbern. 60 Ann: Mm [hm, 61 Bob: [pt ·hh (.) en he:r ro:le;= is go:ing ta One of the factors determining turn taking in conversations is adjacency pairs. (Levinson, 1983). This refers to a conversation a technique that pre-determines the response of the next speaker. A good example is request-decline/approval, offer-acceptance, and question-answer situations among other s (Levinson, 1983). In this technique, one speaker picks the next speaker to take the turn by the kind of statements he/she make. In a question-answer scenario, whoever the question is directed to amongst the participants takes the turn. The concept of adjacency pairs is also vital in indicating whether the next speaker was listening for his/her turn or not (Duncan, 1972). When a participant is greeted and he/she responds by asking a question, it is an indication that the participant was not keen on taking the turn in that particular conversation. Turn-taking in the case study is hampered by the long pauses taken by the Bob. Anne does not also encourage the conversation since she has reduced herself to an active listener rather than a party to the conversation. There is also interference by the telephone call that Bob receives. However, being couples, they seem to pick very easily from where the conversation stopped. They understand each other very well and there are no serious inte rruptions between themselves. Transitions in Conversations The conversational coherence between parties is usually determined by how smooth the transitions are from one speaker to another (Shotter, 1995). This transition can only be smooth if every participant respects the turn-taking mechanism in the conversational process. Silence in conversations act as transition points since they signal the next speaker to take his/her turn (Deborah, 2001).Bob does this in line 233 and 235 when Annie fails to take the turn. Bob:  ¿ 234 (0.3) 235 Bob: I(h) ha(h)ve ï‚ ­no(h)t-ï‚ ­ godda clue:. 236 (0.7) This occurs mostly in cases where parties to the conversation self-select to take turns and there are no automatic allocations of turns during the conversation. At line 125, Bob takes the turn after having broken off to answer to the phone. Bob: an: y’kno:w,= that w’z gra:nd;= she sorda 126 said;= well he:y;= y’know that’s:: ï  §wï  §-what 127 we wanna kno:w  ¿= en (0.5) j’ sorda wennon 128 fr’m the:re ¿= en (0.5) ï‚ ­Ã‚ °jeezus ‘n bloody 129 drï‚ ­in:k;= could she drï‚ ­inkhh °Ã¯â€š ­. This is a way of indicating to her partner that the conversation between them has resumed. Silence is also effective in ordering conversation in that it allows the same speaker some breathing space before proceeding with the conversation (Deborah, 2001). It is also an opportunity for the next speaker to digest the direction which the conversation and decides whether to steer it in that direction or change course. Since participants to conversations tend to be generally uncomfortable with long pauses or lapses, it is expected that the transition from one turn to the other will not be long (Goldenberg, 1993). In the case study, Bob seems to get uncormfortable with Ann’s prolong silence when she is supposed to take the turn in line 236. The conversation goes as follows: W’ whï‚ ­y: did ee hafta do: that. 2 33 Bob:  ¿ 234 (0.3) 235 Bob: I(h) ha(h)ve ï‚ ­no(h)t-ï‚ ­ godda clue:. 236 (0.7) This force Bob himself in line 237 to allow Anne to take her turn. For their to be a smooth transition between one speaker to another, there is need of each party to listen to one another not only out of politeness, but also in order to maintain the conversational coherence. Repair Mechanisms The repair mechanisms available in a conversation are as varied as the mischief they intend to cure. For a free flow of speech in a conversation, there must not be lapses and pauses that cause discomfort among speakers (Schiffrin, 1994). When dealing with trouble, it is always the previous speaker or the turn following the one which the trouble occurred (Schegloff, 2002). In the case study, at line 145 Ann encourages Bob to continue speaking after Bobs monologue by uttering the sound â€Å"ooh†. 144 Bob: hou:r en a ha:lf ¿ or- nearly two hou:r[s: ¿ 145 Ann: [ï‚ ­Hooh. 146 Bob:  ·hh (thut-) on: topev the boddle a re:d, (0.4) This is a repair initiating effort, which ensures that Bob does not think that Ann is not listening. Other repair mechanism includes the giving up of a turn by one speaker should they find themselves taking a turn at the same time (Burbules, 1993). Implication for Language Teaching The art of conversation analysis is very important especially for language students since it gives students confidence. This is because they are able to analyze and understand the causes of lapses, pauses and other limitations of conversation and other speech exchange systems. Turn-taking also assists the student to understand the multifaceted nature of conversation and the intricacies involved in ensuring that it flows freely. The significance of turn-taking in the study of languages is mostly appreciated by non-native speakers of the English language. This is because when the subject is broken down and dissected in pieces as is done in conversational analysis, it gets demystified and therefore easy to understand. Conclusion This paper has reviewed the role of turn-taking in context of the recorded conversation between the couples in the case study. It has shown that turn-taking plays a key part in ensuring that conversation between participants flows freely. It also averts friction and confusion that would be the natural consequence it was not used in conversation. The paper has also endeavoured to highlight the repair mechanisms available to participants who take turns to make speech in conversation. The role of transition techniques in ensuring smooth turn-taking and flow of conversation has also been outlined. The techniques of allocating turns during conversations have also been discussed. Previous speaker allocation has been distinguished from a situation where individuals allocate themselves the turn to speak The paper has further established that turn-taking brings about sequential organization in a conversation. The sequence need not be l inear or one directional, as long as all the participants take their turns at the appropriate time. The significance of turn-taking to the teaching of language was also highlighted. It was observed that language students who take part in conversational analysis gain confidence and are able to improve not only their conversation but communication skills generally. References Applebee, A. (1996). Curriculum as conversation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bales, R. (1950). Interaction Process Analysis. Cambridge, Mass: Addison Wesley. Burbules, N. (1993). Dialogue in teaching: Theory and practice. New York: College Press. Deborah, C. (2001). Working with spoken discourse. London: Thousand Oaks. Drew, P., Heritage, J. (1992). Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Duncan, S. (1972). Some Signals and rules for taking Speaking turns in conversations. Journal of personalities and Social Psychology, 23, 283-92. Forman, E. A., McC ormick, D. E. (1995). Discourse analysis: A socio-cultural perspective. Remedial and Special Education, 16, 150-158. Goldenberg, C. (1993). Instructional conversations: Promoting comprehension through discussion. The Reading Teacher, 46, 316-326. Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Liddicoat, A. (2007). An introduction to conversation analysis. Portland: Continuum Publishing Group. Palincsar, A. S. (1986). The role of dialogue in providing scaffolded instruction. Educational Psychologist, 21, 73-98. Sacks, H. (Ed.) (1992). Lectures on Conversation. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Schegloff, E. A., Koshik, I., Jacoby, S., Olsher D. (2002). Conversation analysis and applied linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, 3-31. Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to discourse. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Shotter, J. (1995). In conversation: Joint action, shared intentionality, and the ethics of conversation. Theory and Psychology, 5, 49-73. Silve rman, D. (2001). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analyzing talk, text and interaction. London: Sage. Tannen, D. (1984). Conversational style: Analyzing talk among friends. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Ten, P. (1998). Doing conversation analysis: A practical Stride. London: Sage Wells, G. (1999). Dialogic inquiry: Toward a socio-cultural practice and theory of education. New York: Cambridge University Press. Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. This essay on Turn Taking in Conversations was written and submitted by user Maxx Serrano to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Does Internet Good Outweigh the Bad †Argumentative Essay Brief Summary

Does Internet Good Outweigh the Bad – Argumentative Essay Brief Summary Free Online Research Papers Does Internet Good Outweigh the Bad Argumentative Essay Brief Summary Internet becomes more and more popular. Every child which is able to read use it and almost everyone has it at home. But is internet the blessing or the curse? Even if you do not have much time, having internet, you can contact with your friends very quickly. E-mails replace letters and instead tame taking meetings you can talk with people by messengers like gadu-gadu or skype. You can also meet some new friends or even the love of your life. It is really comfortable to use your account without going to a bank, standing in queues and all that stress. Internet is the best and the quickest way of acquiring information. What is more you can make there some shopping or have access to libraries or other sources. In the other hand some relationships made on-line can be dangerous, especially for children, who are naive. Internet is a very popular source of illegal mp3 and distributed without permission films. It is often that during searching some information you run into porno films or catch viruses. In addition not always you can get reliable information. Some of your data can be stolen and used by hackers. Whatever we say about it, internet is to popular to stop people using it. I think it is really good invention but as if with everything, human can use it in bad aims. Research Papers on Does Internet Good Outweigh the Bad - Argumentative Essay Brief SummaryAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows EssayThe Project Managment Office SystemOpen Architechture a white paperPETSTEL analysis of IndiaComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoWhere Wild and West MeetThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationStandardized TestingNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This Nice

Monday, March 2, 2020

Preventing and Controlling Sooty Mold Tree Disease

Preventing and Controlling Sooty Mold Tree Disease Sooty mold appropriately and exactly describes the disease, as it looks just like chimney soot.  Ascomycete  fungi, which includes many genera, commonly  Cladosporium  and  Alternaria are usually the offending fungal organisms.  Although unsightly, it seldom damages the tree but it can look nasty in the landscape. The pathogens are dark fungi growing either on the honeydew excreted by sucking insects  or on exuded sap  material coming from leaves of certain trees. These sucking insects can include aphids and scale insects and sooty mold may occur on any tree but is most commonly seen on boxelder, elm, linden, and especially  maple trees. More on Honeydew Honeydew is a sugary,  sticky liquid secreted  by sucking, piercing  insects as they feed on plant sap. The insect feeds itself by using a special mouthpart that penetrates  the soft tissues of plant foliage, soft stems and most particularly for aphids, the tender underside of leaves. These soft-bodied insects produce the honeydew as a liquid waste product via the gut but will not harm your tree. Its a real problem on  everything beneath and around the tree that is exposed to the syrup and then colonized by sooty mold. Prevention of Sooty Mold Sooty molds are associated with high temperatures and increased stress brought on by limited moisture. During drought, aphid populations and their honeydew production typically increase on foliage undergoing moisture stress. One prevention method for the mold is keeping plants and trees well-watered and controlling the soft-bodied insect population is very important. Control of Sooty Mold Sooty molds can be indirectly controlled by reducing populations of sucking insects that excrete honeydew. Use the appropriate recommended chemicals that control aphids and other sucking insects. The appropriate chemicals  your trees need for these sucking insects might be applying horticultural oil  during the dormant season  followed by an insect growth regulator in the mid-summer. Also, a good washing of infested trees foliage (if possible) can dilute the honeydew and wash off the mold. This alone may be all that is needed.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Should the Oxford's word of the year to be included in a formal Research Paper

Should the Oxford's word of the year to be included in a formal dictionary - Research Paper Example To facilitate common understanding, all these words, whether easy or hard, common or unique should be appropriately documented in a dictionary (Winchester 87, qtd. in Brown). In the recent years, the society has used various words for informal communication and self expression in the internet. Among the most popular are the words â€Å"selfie, bitcoins, and twerk† which Oxford had announced as the new international words of 2013 (Rabe). This paper attempts to describe the qualifications of new words to be placed in a dictionary. It will also illustrate the implications for educators and students for including Oxford’s new words in a formal dictionary. Finally, it attempts to show why these new words should not be contained in formal dictionaries. Definition of Oxford’s New Words The new Oxford’s international words were developed at the height of technology and digital communication. For instance, selfie is used to describe a person who is fond of taking pictures of oneself which are then posted in the social networking sites. This word was first used in an online forum in Australia (Rabe). In addition, twerk is defined in the social media as â€Å"work hips in a sexual way† (â€Å"Twerk†). On the other hand, bitcoin refers to the new form of currency for making online purchases. It has been popularized as the new digital currency (â€Å"Bitcoin†). At present, the usage of bitcoins is still in the experimental stage so there is a probability that this word will not remain permanent. Qualification of Words in Formal Dictionary The general rule for a new word to be qualified in a dictionary is that the word should gain a significant number of citations from different publications. This proves that many people are using the word. However, this rule does not apply to all situations. There are cases when too many citations give editors difficulty to identify the real meaning of the word (â€Å"How Does a Word†). For instance, after the word selfie became popular in an online forum in Australia, several words were also developed such as â€Å"drelfie† to refer to â€Å"drunken selfie† and â€Å"welfie† for â€Å"workout selfie† (Rabe). Moreover, a new word should also be cited for at least two to three years in various sources before it can be placed in a printed and formal dictionary (â€Å"How Do You Decide†). Many of the new words such as selfie, bitcoins, and twerk that were recognized by Oxford come largely come from soc ial media. Since there is a lack of variation of sources, the new words still lack qualification even though they have reached an enormous amount of citations from social networking sites. A group of editors is responsible for evaluating whether or not certain new words are qualified to be placed in a formal dictionary. Their judgments are primarily based on the currency of the words, clarity of meaning, and the establishment of the words in the language of a society (â€Å"How Does a Word†). For this reason, editors need to have a substantial period of time to effectively evaluate the qualification of the new words. With the presence of the internet, it is very easy for certain words to become highly popular and gain numerous citations. Thus, the editors should not base their judgments solely on the frequency of citations. This applies to the various new words that Oxford is considering to place in its formal dictionary. Moreover, the new words identified by Oxford especiall y selfie and twerk are commonly considered as slang words which are used for informal communication in blogs and online forum among surfers in the internet community. This is evident in the dictionary for slang words which defines selfie as a photograph of oneself which is taken by oneself (â€Å"Selfie†